The Grumman TBF Avenger was introduced to the US Navy in 1942, as a replacement for the Douglas TBD Devastator. It was a large carrier based aircraft powered by a single Wright R2600-8 engine of 1700hp. Its role is a torpedo bomber, and it has a 3-man crew. The Avenger was distinguished by having a power-operated turret just behind the cockpit. The Avenger had a distinguished wartime record from its disastrous debut at Midway, to bombing raids over Tokyo. The TBF-1C was developed to deal with TBF-1’s shortcoming, the .30-calibre cowl gun being deleted in favour of two .50 calibre machine guns mounted in the wings. The other noticeable external change to the TBF-1C was the relocation of the antenna mast a little further aft to the rear of the turnover pylon. Internally, the seat was removed from the second cockpit and replaced with radio equipment. Development of the Avenger continued post-war, with the Fleet Air Arm putting 100 TBM-3Es into service in 1953.
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